A Complete Guide To How Solar Chargers Work

Solar chargers are useful pieces of equipment that help people keep their phone on during blackouts or camping adventures. Those new to the equipment may wonder how they function.

Solar chargers require sunlight to function effectively. Solar power banks can store energy and charge devices without sunlight. They often contain USB ports that allow them to output power to devices such as phones and cameras. Their portable nature makes them easy to carry around and use at different geographical locations. 

Let’s dive into how this all comes together and works.

How Does a Solar Charger Charge?

Solar chargers utilize solar energy for electricity supply to batteries or devices. These chargers are often portable. These chargers charge Ni-Cd batteries and lead acid banks to as high as 48V. The ampere-hours it charges are also in the hundreds. Solar chargers’ set up in this manner utilizes charge controllers.

Solar chargers utilize solar cells. A series of these cells are installed in a fixed location such as base-station locations (the ground) or on top of roofs. They can then connect to battery banks for energy storage. Additionally, they can be used as main-supply chargers to support energy saving during the day.

Solar chargers come in different shapes and forms. They include public solar chargers, flashlights, fold-out models, and smaller models that are portable. Smaller models are capable of charging iPods, mobile phones, and other audio equipment (portable).

You can place fold-out models on dashboards of automobiles and the cigar lighter socket (12v). Public solar chargers can be found in public places and permanently installed. Some of these areas include streets, parks, and squares.

Electrical power production using nuclear and steam power plants result in pollution. In the long term, such emissions are dangerous and harmful because of the effects and large capacity.

More people are now aware of different types of energy and their environmental effects. It has been spearheaded by the worsening case of energy catastrophes that has prompted individuals to turn to alternative energy sources. Thankfully, You can quickly adopt these alternative sources.

Switching to clean energy sources isn’t debatable. The question of how we can change is often asked, given that millions depend on fossil fuel reserves. These reserves, however, are quickly being depleted. All while the demand and the consumption of energy keep increasing. Pollution-free and eco-friendly energy has become necessary.

With solar energy, no moving parts are involved. Also, there are little to no environmental emissions experienced with converting sunlight to electricity during operation. It makes it a reliable form of energy for charging gadgets. While it seems like a minute part of the clean energy process, it goes a long way. In fact, solar photovoltaic is now the third most essential alternative energy source after wind and hydropower.

The PV handles conversion from solar energy to DC electricity. The control system then regulates the charging and energy stored in loads and batteries. These control systems regulate voltage and the current from the panels to rechargeable batteries.  

The photovoltaic chargers also disconnect the PV array once the gadget/battery attains full charge. It protects the battery from any damage – in this case, overcharging. In turn, the battery life is extended rather than reduced because of excessive discharging. 

What Does a Solar Charger Do When the Battery is Full?

When batteries are left to overcharge, this reduces their lifespan and threatens human beings. Everyone shares the responsibility of preserving the energy sources that are quickly depleting. Traditional electricity is an artificial resource, and the poor consumption by humans is resulting in its loss.

For to curb this predicament, manufacturers designed auto turn-off chargers. These are devices that aid with charging batteries. They then immediately shut off once the devices obtain a full charge. It prevents batteries from deeply charging, and circuits automatically charge these batteries when battery voltages are lower than their set value. The automatic shut-off also prevents battery explosion. 

Photovoltaic chargers work in the same way. They can disconnect the array once a device attains full charge. It keeps batteries from getting damaged as a result of the overcharging experience. Batteries are also protected from excessive discharge that may harm them.

Other than excessive discharging, other factors are detrimental to battery life. These include many cycles, excessive voltage ripple in charge voltage, extremely high electrolyte temperatures, electrolyte loss, and discharging batteries further than their capacity. Incorrect charge voltages also affect batteries. The extremely low voltages mean batteries won’t charge to 100%.

One way overcharging is controlled is with the use of solar charge controllers. I recommend solar charge controllers whenever a solar panel with an output of more than 5 watts is in use. Other than controlling overcharge, solar charge controllers also improve the quality of charging and prevent the discharge of batteries in conditions with little or no light.

There are other solar panels in existence comprising pre-installed blocking diodes. These blocking diodes act like solar charge controllers in that they prevent in conditions with minimal lighting. 

It is safe to say that solar charge controllers act like a switch- turning on and off when necessary. Solar charge allows power to go through when batteries need it and go off when batteries are full.

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How Does My Solar Phone Charger Work?

For the last century, energy production predominantly came from coal, gas, and oil, and other fossil fuels, and nuclear power. With the increased use of solar energy, small gadgets such as solar phone chargers came to the market to aid phone charging. They contain a battery and a photovoltaic cell or cells.

Solar phone chargers are used mainly by backpackers who may not have access to electricity. The portable and foldable solar panels have a 12V adapter that allows one to power accessories. Due to voltage variation, connecting gadgets directly to the panel is inadvisable. Instead, small batteries make use as energy storage vessels, providing stable and reliable power.

Can You Leave A Solar Phone Charger On All The Time?

Leaving chargers on all the time is detrimental. Researchers analyzed how people improperly used mobile phones. Some behaviors analyzed included using phones while they charged, mixing portable phone chargers of different phone specifications, and plugging in chargers for a long time in the socket.

Leaving solar phone chargers on all the time, especially with phones plugged in, is discouraged as it causes batteries to age. Battery aging, in the end, results in the premature replacement of devices. Unfortunately, chargers that lack controllers don’t sufficiently consider the health of batteries.

With the emergence of the constant connectability, people have also become highly reliant on devices such as smartphones. It means that current phones go through more charge and discharge cycles than older phones. This alone increases the rate at which they age.

You can use control measures to ensure a slower battery aging. These include charging at appropriate times, modulating the speed at which devices charge, and reducing usage-dependent charge levels.

Using external batteries or power banks has become more preferred as it prevents the overcharging experienced with direct charging. 

How Long Do Solar Power Banks Last?

We use solar power banks to charge mobile phones, with their primary energy source being sunlight. These power banks prove useful when disasters occur, or phones go off during school, work, or any other inconvenient situation. Some power banks have inbuilt solar panels that convert energy from the sun to electrical energy. This charge then transfers to batteries that store the energy for future use.

The batteries in power banks contain microcontrollers that indicate the amount of charge available in the battery. Knowing whether the power bank can recharge another mobile device or needs recharging becomes easier. Power banks have a USB port that acts as an output to the small portable devices. 

Power banks’ output and input are created to be compatible with USB (universal series bus). It keeps the system protected from electrical surges when it’s plugged in. Portable electronic devices that USB connectors are connected to include tabs, cameras, and smartphones.

Factors To Consider When Deciding On Solar Panels

When deciding on solar panels, major factors include battery capacity (measured in Amp hrs). The Amp hours should multiply by the voltage of batteries to convert to Watt hrs. A simple calculation is X x Y =Z, i.e. (AH battery size x battery voltage = Power available in watt-hours).

The battery/power bank should not face total depletion. It is because it’s difficult to power the battery once power within it drops past a particular threshold. Lead acid batteries, for example, only output 50% of their rated power. On the other hand, the rated power of Li-ion batteries given out is 80%.  

How long a solar power bank lasts will be dependent on its power capacity and the capacity of the devices it recharges. As mentioned before, checking the capacity balance of the power bank is necessary before recharging other devices.

One way that we accomplish this is by connecting a 3.5mm DC connector of the phone to the Dc jack of the solar power bank. The voltage to the DC 5.2 V switches, and pressing the button indicates battery capacity. One should then proceed to look out for LED light colors. One red LED indicated 30%, one green LED indicated 50%, and two green LEDs indicated 80%. 

The capacity indicator will only work when a plug inserts into the output jack and 5.2V is selected. When the capacity indicator shows that the power bank has a low battery during recharge, You should first recharge the power bank. 

To charge the power bank, You should connect the DC connector of the car/travel charger to the power bank. As the power bank charges, the charge indicator will light up. Once charging completes, it will automatically fade out. I recommend you charge the solar bank overnight before its first-time use.

The time it takes a solar bank to charge will depend on how much charge it had before charging and the battery’s capacity. A good comparison of the length of the charging is with a smartphone. The time it takes a phone to charge fully is the same as that of a 1500mAh power bank. Larger power banks may require double or triple the charging time. Fortunately, they have a safety cut-off when full.                                                                                                                                                                                    

Difference Between Solar Chargers And Solar Power Banks

While the words solar chargers and solar power banks seem interchangeable, they do have a difference. Solar chargers don’t have batteries meaning they don’t store energy. Instead, they work by directly charging portable devices such as phones. Power banks, on the hand, contain in-built batteries where they keep their energy. It allows them to charge other devices even in the absence of sunlight.

Solar power banks offer more freedom than solar chargers. When charging phones with solar banks, one should get the right-sized cable. It would be best if you connected the phone cable to the universal adaptor. It would be best if you switched the voltage to DC 5.2V. It would be best if you connected the phone connector to the phone and the DC connector battery bank’s output jack.

When charging batteries with solar, remember that unfolding the solar panel entirely and placing it in a sunny location, perpendicular to the sun’s rays, will help with effectiveness. Propping or tilting modules will reduce the time it takes to charge.

Also, batteries shouldn’t be on charge when temperatures exceed 45C or below 0C. If you want to avoid overheating and damage, battery banks should be placed in the shades when charging.

How Do I Recharge My Solar Bank?

Once solar banks exhaust their power, they need recharging to continue being useful. The charging process of power banks requires USB connectors. One can plug the connectors into a laptop’s USB port without USB adapters. When the sunlight is more potent, the power banks charge faster.

Light will automatically show when the solar bank is charging. Once charging completes, the light will automatically go off. The cut-off that aids with the immediate cut-off are there to help avoid overcharging or overheating the battery.

How Well Do Solar Power Banks Work?

If the conditions are right, solar power banks and chargers work great. For them to work efficiently, they require bright and sunny weather, panel wings should be under direct sunlight, and a microcontroller, to mention a few.

Solar power banks are not only affordable, but they are also environmentally friendly. Given the many environmental hazards, the world faces, solar power banks are an excellent way to minimize the strain. Solar charging only taps natural energy, unlike regular electricity, supporting greenhouse gas emissions.  

One should keep safety precautions in mind to increase the device’s lifespan and ensure it works effectively. Ensure you are keeping the battery from sources of heat, not throwing them into fires, not trampling or hammering the battery, or trying to disassemble it. Using the battery underwater should also be avoided. 


With the above, operating a solar charger becomes a walk in the park. More people are likely to benefit from this product, given that they are affordable and emission-free. The first step would be acquiring one.

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